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Friday, September 11, 2015

Swarnprashna(Ayurvedic vaccine)

In the world of medicines with harmful side effects, genetically modified food, chemically treated drinks, busy lifestyle, electronic distractions and unpredictable environment, It is a big challenge for parents to build a stronger & intelligent kids. Swarna Prashana is a natural, time tested, practiced for more than 1000s of years by our ancestors that builds over all health and intelligence naturally without leaving any harmful side effects.

Today it is now popularly known as an ayurvedic immunization program or “ayurvedic way of vaccination” promoted by many ayurvedic professionals. It is sometimes known by other names like, Swarna amruta prashana, Swarna prashana, Swarna prashan, Swarn prashan, Swarna bindu prashana or Suvarna prashan.

Since ancient times, our ancestors passed their best practices of holistic lifestyle to their next generations. Over a period of time they became a ritual that got integrated into their day to day life. These series of rituals are known as samskaras. They are connected with the major events of life such as pregnancy, childbirth, naming ceremony, education, marriage, etc. These samskaras enables us to live a complete fulfilling physical and spiritual life.

Swarna Prashana is one  of sixteen samskaras mentioned in ancient texts for paediatrics. It is an unique method to build long lasting health and intellect naturally without leaving any harmful side effects.

Suvarna prashan sanskar is one of the 16 essential rituals described in ayurveda for children.
Definition : The process in which Suvarna bhasma (purified ash of gold) is administered with fortified ghee prepared with herbal extracts, and honey in liquid or semisolid form.
Whom to administer : Suvarna prashan can be given to age group of      0-16yrs.
Time of administration : suvarna prashan can be done daily early in the morning, or atleast on every Pushya nakshatra- an auspicious day- which happens to come after every 27 days, given on this day it bestows excellent benefits.
Benefits of suvarna prashan :
Suvarna prashan increases immunity power and developes resistance against common infections, thus prevents children from falling ill very oftenly.
It builds physical strength in children and enhances physical activites, and also improves stamina for the same.
Regular doses of Suwarna prashan improves child’s intellect, grasping power, sharpness, analysis power, memory recalling in an unique manner.
It kindles digestive fire, improves digestion and decreases related complaints.
Suvarna prashan also improves child’s appetite.
It helps to nurture early physical and mental development.
It developes an inbuilt strong defense mechanism in kids which acts as a safety sheild against diseases and complaints occuring due to seasonal change and other prevailing infections.
It helps body to recover early in case of any illness.
It guards children from various allergies.
It protects children from ailments occuring during teething phase.
Tones up skin colour.
Overall it makes child healthier, children taking Suwarna prashan doses regularly can be easily distinguised from their remarkably outstanding  physical and mental ability.

Tuesday, December 2, 2014

Role of dairy products in child health

It is very important to include dairy products in a child's diet as they provide a lot of health benefits. Learn about the immense health benefits which children can reap by consuming dairy products.

Dairy foods like milk, cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, cream etc. are rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous, riboflavin, vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and other essential nutrients. Yogurt is said to have more nutritional benefits than milk. It is prepared by fermentation of milk. Dairy foods are essential for the good health of kids and they form an important part of a complete balanced diet. Good amount of dairy products should be included in the diet of a kid. Read on to know more about the health benefits of dairy products for kids.

Healthy Bones

Calcium and phosphorous increases the bone density and mass. Milk and dairy products are rich in calcium and they should be given in adequate quantity to children for healthy development and maintenance of strong bones. Also, regular consumption of dairy products prevents the children from getting diseases like osteoporosis, which makes the bone brittle and weak at later stage of their lives.

Good Teeth

Dairy products are good for maintaining healthy and good teeth.  Casein is a protein, which is found in abundance in milk and which is good for preventing tooth decay. Milk can be given to kids in between meals. Calcium, present in yogurt, milk, cheese, and other dairy products, helps in preventing gum diseases.

Prevents Dehydration

A child can get dehydrated due to some illness or excessive sweating. Fluids in the form of milk keep your kids hydrated. Apart from re-hydrating the body, milk provides instant energy. Sodium and potassium present in milk restores the fluid balance in the body effectively. Buttermilk with a pinch of salt is a good rehydration drink and very good for children especially in very hot weather.

Controlling Blood Pressure

High blood pressure can affect young kids too, which can damage the heart, blood vessels, and other organs of their body. Potassium-rich food is required for controlling blood pressure. Milk, yogurt, and other dairy products provide the potassium, which is required for controlling high blood pressure. Bioactive peptides are type of proteins found in milk and they help controlling blood pressure.

Prevents Obesity in Children

Obesity can lead to heart disease. Obesity in children is one of the main health concerns in children nowadays, which is increasing at an alarming rate. Globally, it is found that one out of 10 school going children are obese.  It can however be controlled by proper intake of sufficient quantity of dairy foods. It is a wrong belief that dairy food makes a child fat.  Calcium present in dairy food helps in breaking down the body fat. Children who drink flavoured milk are less attracted to other sweetened drinks.

Stay Healthy the Dairy Way

Dairy products take care of the normal growth and development of your child. Children grow quickly and they need liberal serving of dairy food on a regular basis. During early stages of childhood when their bones and teeth are developing, it is very essential to give them plenty of calcium rich food. Milk is the best source of calcium. Till the age of 10 years, your children require calcium in adequate quantity.

For children who do not like milk or are lactose-intolerant, you may substitute with soy milk or buttermilk. You may try giving your children, chocolate milk, or other flavoured milk. Most children love cheese. Various forms of cheese in different flavours are easily available in the market.  You can make different types of snacks with cheese or even cheese sandwiches, which your children will love. Enjoy the benefits of dairy food with your children

Monday, December 1, 2014

HIV --All about it

एचआईवी एक ऐसी बीमारी है जिसके नाम से ही जिंदगी रूक जाती है,लेकिन ऐसा नहीं है अगर एचआईवी होने पर भी आप खुद को एक बेहतर लाइफ दे सकते हैं। आज एचआईवे डे पर हम आपको एचआईवी के बारे में बता रहे है ताकि आपको इसके बारे में पूरी जानकारी हो।

क्या है HIV ?

एचआईवी की फुल फॉर्म है ह्यूमन इम्यूनो वायरस। यह वायरस बॉडी के इम्यूम सिस्टम पर अटैक करता है। इसके चलते शरीर की बीमारियों के खिलाफ लड़ने की ताकत कम होती जाती है।
अगर किसी को एचआईवी है, तो इसका मतलब यह है कि उसकी बॉडी में एचआईवी वायरस आ गया है। अगर वो दवाई नहीं लेता, तो यह एड्स में विकसित हो सकता है।

एचआईवी के Early Symptoms:

STAGE ONE:

एचआईवी संक्रमण के 7-10 दिन बाद, मरीज़ में ये लक्षण दिखते हैं:
- गला खराब
- बुखार
- छाती पर रैश
- थकान
- उल्टी जैसा लगना
- हैजा

STAGE TWO:

एचआईवी के ये early लक्षण पहचान पाना मुश्किल होता है, क्योंकि ये 2-3 हफ्तों में गायब हो जाते हैं। इन लक्षणों को कभी-कभार डॉक्टर्स भी मिस कर देते हैं। ऐसे में एचआईवी पॉज़िटिव शख्स कई साल तक इन लक्षणों के साथ जीता रहता है। आप मान लीजिए कि मरीज़ 10 साल तक इन लक्षणों के साथ जी सकता है।

STAGE THREE:

इस स्टेज पर पहुंचकर बॉडी का इम्यून सिस्टम बहुत वीक हो जाता है और वो बीमारियों से घिर जाता है। अब उसके शरीर में इन बीमारियों से लड़ने की ताकत भी नहीं बचती है। मरीज़ अब टीबी, निमोनिया, फंगल रोगों, बैक्टीरियल रोगों और वायरल रोगों से घिर जाता है। फिर मरीज़ को एचआईवी के लिए दवाई दी जाती है, ताकि उसका इम्यूम सिस्टम और डैमेज न हो।
FACTS:

लगभग 90 प्रतिशत लोग एचआईवी की गिरफ्त में सेक्शुअल कॉन्टेक्ट से आते हैं।अगर एचआईवी पॉज़िटिवशख्स प्रोटेक्शन यूज़ किए बिना रिलेशनशिप बनाता है,तो उसके पार्टनर को भी एचआईवी पॉज़िटिव के पूरे चांसेस होते हैं। एचआईवी संक्रमित सुई, सीरिंज या अन्य इंजेक्शन लगाने वाले उपकरण से भी हो सकता है। एचआईवी का टेस्ट सलाइवा सैंपल से भी हो सकता है।
एचआईवी थूक फेंकने, काटने या फिर बर्तन शेयर करने से नहीं फैलता।
अगर प्रेग्नेंट महिला को एचआईवी है, तो इस केस में 1 प्रतिशत शिशुओं को एचआईवी का खतरा होता है। एचआईवी का रिज़ल्ट 15-20 मिनट में सामने आ जाता है। एचआईवी का कोई टीका या इलाज नहीं है। Myth: क्या HIV और AIDS एक ही होते हैं ?

Fact: इन दोनों का मतलब एक नहीं होता। अगर किसी को एचआईवी है, तो वो दवाई लेकर अपनी ज़िंदगी बढ़ा सकता है। जिस इंसान को एड्स होता है, उसका इम्यूम सिस्टम इतना कमज़ोर हो जाता है कि वो किसी भी बीमारी से लड़ नहीं पाता।

Myth: अगर दोनों में से एक पार्टनर भी एचआईवी पॉज़िटिव है, तो उनका बच्चा नहीं हो सकता ?

Fact: ऐसा नहीं है। अगर सही स्टेप्स उठाए जाएं, तो एचआईवी न तो पार्टनर को होगा और न ही बच्चे में आएगा। यूके में 1 प्रतिशत से भी कम चांस होते हैं कि एचआईवी मां से बच्चे को भी आ जाए। इसमें आपको डॉक्टर की सलाह माननी चाहिए और सही स्टेप्स फॉलो करने चाहिए।
Myth: क्या HIV और AIDS एक ही होते हैं ?

Fact: इन दोनों का मतलब एक नहीं होता। अगर किसी को एचआईवी है, तो वो दवाई लेकर अपनी ज़िंदगी बढ़ा सकता है। जिस इंसान को एड्स होता है, उसका इम्यूम सिस्टम इतना कमज़ोर हो जाता है कि वो किसी भी बीमारी से लड़ नहीं पाता
HIV कैसे हो सकता है ?

Fact: एचआईवी ब्रेस्ट मिल्क, सीमेन (वीर्य), वजाइनल फ्लूड्स और ब्लड से हो सकता है। डे-टू-डे कॉन्टेक्ट, किसिंग,थूक या एक ही कप और प्लेट शेयर करने से एचआईवी नहीं होता।

Myth: HIV पॉज़िटिव शख्स की जल्दी मृत्यु हो जाती है ?

Fact: वैसे तो एचआईवी का पक्का इलाज नहीं है, लेकिन आजकल ट्रीटमेंट्स इतनी एडवांस हो गई हैं कि एचआईवी पॉज़िटिव मरीज़ भी जी सकता है। यूके में एचआईवी पॉज़िटिव शख्स की आयु नॉर्मल ही होती है और वो एक्टिव लाइफ जीता है। अगर एचआईवी का जल्दी पता चल जाए, तो यह बॉडी को ज़्यादा हार्म नहीं पहुंचा पाता।

Myth: क्या ओरल सेक्स से भी HIV होने के चांसेस हैं ?

Fact: ओरल सेक्स से एचआईवी होने के चांसेस बहुत कम होते हैं, लेकिन यह हो सकता है। अगर मुंह में छाले, कट्स,मसूड़ों में खून की समस्या चल रही है, तो ओरल सेक्स अवॉइड करना चाहिए, क्योंकि इस केस में एचआईवी पॉज़िटिव होने के चांसेस बढ़ जाते हैं।

मैं खुद को और दूसरों को HIV इंफेक्शन से कैसे बचा सकता हूं ?

Fact: सेक्स के दौरान हमेशा प्रोटेक्शन यूज़ करनी चाहिए। एक दूसरे की सीरिंज, सुई बिल्कुल भी शेयर न करें।

का है ज़्यादा रिस्क, ये हैं इसके 3 Stages और Facts
Dainikbhaskar.com | Dec 1, 2014, 11:49:00 AM IST
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Myth: HIV टेस्ट का रिज़ल्ट आने में कई महीने लग जाते हैं ?

Fact: आजकल मेडिकल काफी एडवांस हो गया है। यह सच नहीं है कि एचआईवी टेस्ट का रिज़ल्ट आने में 3, 6 या 12 महीने लग जाते हैं। आजकल एचआईवी टेस्ट का रिज़ल्ट 15-20 मिनट में ही आ जाता है। दरअसल, रिज़ल्ट टेस्ट पर निर्भर करता है।अगर किसी को भी लगता है कि वो एचआईवी एक्सपोज़र में आया है, तो उसे तुरंत टेस्ट करवाना चाहिए।

Myth: सिर्फ गे मैन को ही HIV होता है ?

Fact: इस बात में कोई दो राय नहीं है कि गे मैन को एचआईवी संक्रमण जल्दी हो जाता है, लेकिन एचआईवी किसी को भी हो सकता है। यूके में 37,000 से भी ज़्यादा गे मैन एचआईवी की गिरफ्त में हैं।

Saturday, May 1, 2010

About Kidney Transplantation

* Definition of Kidney Transplantation
* Description of Kidney Transplantation
* Treatment of Kidney Transplantation
* Questions To Ask Your Doctor About Kidney Transplantation

Definition of Kidney Transplantation
Article updated and reviewed by Nader Najafian, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Associate Physician, Renal Division--Brigham & Women's Hospital on May 17, 2005.

Kidney Transplantation is the surgical procedure of placing a fully functioning kidney into a person with severe kidney failure. This procedure is usually an elective one, performed in patients who have undergone careful preoperative assessment and preparation, since dialysis enables these patients to be maintained in relatively good condition until the time of surgery. The transplanted kidney may originate from a deceased donor (cadaver transplantation) or from a related or unrelated person (living transplantation).

Description of Kidney Transplantation
The function of the kidneys is to filter the blood in the body and to purify it by ridding it of soluble waste products and excess water (which is then eliminated in the form of urine). Total kidney failure, which may be gradual or sudden in onset, results in the accumulation of these waste products and water in the blood. These waste products can poison you unless removed. In addition, the excess water can accumulate in the lungs and prevent the patient from getting enough oxygen. Either processes or a combination of both can result in death.

The most common causes of kidney failure include:

* infection and inflammation of any part of the kidney structure

*

* damage to kidney tissue from some systemic diseases such as uncontrolled high blood pressure and untreated diabetes) or injury

* • damage to kidney tissue through some medications, including overuse of some over the counter pain killers such as Motrin and Aspirin

* polycystic kidneys (an inherited condition in which the tissues of the kidneys are gradually destroyed by cysts)

* failure of normal kidney development from before birth

There are two major treatment modalities for patients with kidney failure: dialysis or transplantation. In dialysis, the blood is artificially filtered through a machine or by diverting the bloodstream through another permeable membrane in the body itself. Despite numerous medical and technological advances over the last few years, dialysis patients feel very unwell. This is not surprising as even the most efficient hemodialysis regimens can only remove 10-12% of the small solute toxins as compared to normal functioning kidneys. Even though the kidney dialysis can keep the patients alive, these patients still suffer from poor quality of life, extreme dietary restrictions and the psychological burden of depending on a machine. Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice in qualified patients with kidney failure as it has the greatest potential for restoring a healthy and productive life. This operation allows a patient to lead an independent existence instead of being reliant on regular kidney dialysis. It also allows a liberating return to a normal diet. The transplant procedure success rate has improved over the last years with one-year graft survivals exceeding 90% in most centers. A critical shortage of donor organs is the major limitation to expanding the use of this treatment. Many patients with end-stage renal (kidney) disease are suitable for transplantation. Fifty percent of all kidney transplants are received from cadaver donors and the others are received from living, related, or unrelated donors.

Regular kidney dialysis is a short-term solution to kidney failure: the blood is artificially filtered through a machine or by diverting the bloodstream through another permeable membrane in the body itself. The ideal treatment for total kidney failure is kidney transplantation.

One-third to one-half of all patients with end-stage renal (kidney) disease are suitable for transplantation. Two-thirds of all kidney transplants are recieved from cadaveric donors, and one-third are recieved from living, related donors.

Kidney Transplantation Surgery

The aim of the surgery is to supply a single, fully functioning kidney. One kidney provides more than enough filtration and regulating capacity for all purposes and is grafted into its own position while the existing (non-functioning) kidneys remain in place. The existing kidneys are removed only if they cause persistent infection or high blood pressure, and they will not interfere with the transplant procedure or functioning of the new organ. As soon as the transplanted kidney is connected to the blood vessels, it will begin purifying the blood of waste products.

Patients are required to take medications such as corticosteroids, cyclosporine, and/or azathioprine to suppress their immune system in order to prevent rejection of the transplanted kidney.

Post-operative Effects

More often than not, the first week after kidney transplantation is a grace period when things keep getting better. However, the clear sailing can be misleading, since many kidney recipients spend time in the hospital soon after discharge when the functioning of their new kidney diminishes. These episodes are almost always successfully treated by adjusting the medication regimen.

By far the two most common causes of diminished renal function are rejection and the toxic effects of cyclosporine. About 70 percent of all recipients will manifest some signs of organ rejection, and most will also have some evidence of cyclosporine toxicity. Both problems manifest themselves as decreasing urinary output and rising laboratory values of blood BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) and creatinine (a component of urine). These problems are usually treated simultaneously by adding extra doses of steroids.

Managing Rejection

Immediately after kidney transplant surgery, the mainstays of drug therapy are prednisone and cyclosporine, and sometimes azathioprine. It should be emphasized that cyclosporine is enormously beneficial for two reasons: first, in improving long-term survival of the kidney; and second, in permitting the rapid tapering off of the prednisone. Nevertheless, it is critically important that, as long as the transplanted organ is functioning, some level of maintenance immunosuppression (suppression of immunologic response, usually with reference to grafts or organ transplants) is necessary. If at any point a recipient stops taking the medications, rejection can occur - even ten or fifteen years after the transplant.

The important point to remember is that most recipients can expect to have some problems getting adjusted to their new organ, and that after the initial discharge it may be necessary to return to the hospital for one or more additional short stays. New drugs may be needed, and the doses of the anti-rejection medications will probably require adjustment. This fine-tuning is a normal part of recovering.

The vast majority of renal transplants are successful. Thus, the statement that someone is suffering rejection, which understandably sounds disturbing, is not cause for undue alarm. Most cases of rejection can be reversed, and the other causes of abnormal renal function also can be corrected. Well over 80 percent of recipients leave the hospital with a kidney functioning sufficiently to keep them off of dialysis.
Text Continues Below

Treatment of Kidney Transplantation
Kidney Transplantation Surgery

The aim of the surgery is to supply a single, fully functioning kidney. One kidney provides more than enough filtration and regulating capacity for all purposes and is grafted into its own position while the existing (non-functioning) kidneys remain in place. The existing kidneys are removed only if they cause persistent infection or high blood pressure, and they will not interfere with the transplant procedure or functioning of the new organ. As soon as the transplanted kidney is connected to the blood vessels, it will begin purifying the blood of waste products. Patients are required to take medications that suppress the immune system for the rest of their lives to avoid the rejection of the kidney grafts.

Post-operative Effects

In most cases, particularly in patients that get good quality kidneys from family and friends (living donors), the transplanted kidneys start working immediately after transplantation and no further hemodialysis is required. In 20-30% of cases, particularly patients who get cadaver kidneys with poorer organ quality, the kidney may not function immediately and further dialysis may be needed. Regardless, all the transplant patients need to be monitored very closely in the first month after the procedure, as many of the immunosuppressive drugs need to be adjusted carefully. This usually requires clinic visits up to two to three times a week in the first month. By far the two most common causes of diminished renal function are rejection and the toxic effects of cyclosporine. About 30% of all recipients will manifest some signs of organ rejection, and most will also have some evidence of cyclosporine toxicity. Both problems manifest themselves as decreasing urinary output and rising laboratory values of blood BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) and cretonne (a component of urine). These problems are usually treated simultaneously by adding extra doses of steroids. As too low a dose of immunosuppressant drugs can result in rejection, too much of it can result in infections or cancer over time. That is the reason why patients need close follow-up by a kidney transplant specialist.

Managing Rejection

After kidney transplant surgery, the mainstays of drug therapy are usually a combination of two to three immunosuppressive medications, such as prednisone, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, or rapamycin, and sometimes azathioprine or cellcept. Initially, higher doses of these drugs are used as the risk of rejection is highest immediately after transplantation. With time, the levels of these drugs can then be tapered down. Nevertheless, it is critically important that, as long as the transplanted organ is functioning, some level of maintenance immunosuppression (suppression of immunologic response, usually with reference to grafts or organ transplants) is necessary. If at any point a recipient stops taking the medications, rejection can occur - even ten or fifteen years after the transplant.

The vast majority of renal transplants are successful with over 90% of organs functioning after the first year. Thus, the statement that someone is suffering rejection, which understandably sounds disturbing, is not cause for undue alarm. Most cases of rejection can be reversed, and the other causes of abnormal renal function also can be corrected.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor About Kidney Transplantation
How long is the waiting time to get a cadaver kidney?

Who would be qualified to donate a kidney to me (family, spouse, and friends)?

How can potential interested donors be evaluated?

How is the surgery performed?

How long does the surgery take?

How many kidney transplantations have you performed?

What medications will you be prescribing?

What are the side effects of immunosuppressive drugs?

How long will you prescribe steroids or any other medication?

What should be expected after the surgery?

Juvenile Diabetes

* Definition of Juvenile Diabetes
* Description of Juvenile Diabetes
* Causes and Risk Factors of Juvenile Diabetes
* Symptoms of Juvenile Diabetes
* Diagnosis of Juvenile Diabetes
* Treatment of Juvenile Diabetes
* Questions To Ask Your Doctor About Juvenile Diabetes

Definition of Juvenile Diabetes
Juvenile diabetes mellitus is now more commonly called Type 1 diabetes. It is a syndrome with disordered metabolism and inappropriately high blood glucose levels due to a deficiency of insulin secretion in the pancreas.

Description of Juvenile Diabetes
After a meal, a portion of the food a person eats is broken down into sugar (glucose). The sugar then passes into the bloodstream and into the body's cells via a hormone called insulin. Insulin is produced by the pancreas.

Normally, the pancreas produces the right amount of insulin to accommodate the quantity of sugar. However, if the person has diabetes either the pancreas produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond normally to the insulin. Sugar builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine and passes from the body unused.

Diabetes can be associated with major complications involving many organs including the heart, eyes, kidneys, and nerves, especially if the blood sugar is poorly controlled over the years.

Types Of Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by the inability of the pancreas to produce insulin or by the body to appropriately use the insulin it does produce. There are two main types of diabetes, Type 1 and Type 2.

Type 1 diabetes (also called insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes) is caused by autoimmune destruction of the B cells of the pancreas which normally secrete insulin. Those patients require insulin injections for survival.

Type 2 diabetes (or non-insulin-dependent diabetes) is much more common and results from insulin resistance, mainly due to obesity, with inadequate additional production of insulin by the body. In other words, the pancreas produces a reduced amount of insulin or the cells do not respond to the insulin, or both.

Complications of Diabetes

If juvenile diabetes is left unmanaged, damage can occur to:

* Eyes - leading to diabetic retinopathy and possible blindness

* Blood vessels - increasing risk of heart attack, stroke and peripheral artery obstruction

* Nerves - leading to foot ulcers, impotence, and digestive problems

* Kidneys - leading to kidney failure

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Causes and Risk Factors of Juvenile Diabetes
An estimated 17 million people in the U.S. have diabetes, of which about 1.4 million have Type 1 diabetes. The highest prevalence of Type 1 diabetes is in Scandinavia, where it comprises up to 20 percent of the total number of patients with diabetes.

The prevalence of Type 1 diabetes is about 5-10 percent of the total number of diabetes patients in the U.S., while in Japan and China, less than 1 percent of patients with diabetes have Type 1. Approximately 35 American children are diagnosed with juvenile diabetes every day.

The exact cause of Type 1 diabetes (juvenile diabetes) is still unclear. However, it is believed that Type 1 diabetes results from an infectious or toxic insult to persons whose immune system is genetically predisposed to develop an aggressive autoimmune response either against altered pancreatic B antigens (proteins) or against molecules of the B cell resembling a viral protein (called molecular mimicry). It is not caused by obesity or by eating excessive sugar.

The risk of juvenile diabetes is higher than virtually all other severe chronic diseases of childhood. Juvenile diabetes tends to run in families. Brothers and sisters of a child with juvenile diabetes have at least 100 times the risk of developing juvenile diabetes as a child in an unaffected family.

Symptoms of Juvenile Diabetes
The symptoms of Type 1 diabetes (juvenile diabetes) may occur suddenly, and include:

* Frequent urination

* Increased thirst

* Extreme hunger

* Unexplained weight loss

* Extreme weakness and fatigue

* Urinating at night (nocturnal enuresis)

* Blurred vision

* Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet

* Heavy or labored breathing

* Drowsiness or lethargy

* Fruity odor on the breath

Diagnosis of Juvenile Diabetes
A child with the above symptoms must be seen by a physician as soon as possible.

Besides a complete history and physical examination, the doctors will do a battery of laboratory tests. There are numerous tests available to diagnose diabetes such as urine test, blood test, glucose-tolerance test, fasting blood sugar and the glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) test.

A urine sample will be tested for glucose and ketones (acids that collect in the blood and urine when the body uses fat instead of glucose for energy). A blood test is used to measure the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. A glucose-tolerance test checks the body's ability to process glucose. During this test, sugar levels in the blood and urine are monitored for 3 hours after drinking a large dose of sugar solution.

The fasting blood sugar test involves fasting overnight and blood being drawn the next morning. The glycohemoglobin test reflects the cumulative effects of high blood glucose (and measures the degree of control over blood glucose after treatment begins).

Treatment of Juvenile Diabetes
Treatment of Type 1 diabetes involves:

* Diet

* Insulin

* Self-monitoring of blood glucose

* Exercise

Questions To Ask Your Doctor About Juvenile Diabetes
Does the child have Type 1 diabetes?

How can this best be managed?

What is diabetic ketoacidosis?

What changes in diet will be required?

Is there a specific meal plan?

What type of insulin should be used - what is the frequency and dosage?

How can exercise help the child - how much, and what type?

At what age should the child self-administer insulin?

What restrictions and limitations will be placed upon the child's life?

Should the child's teacher or school nurse be alerted to the situation?

Are there any support groups or organizations regarding the care of a child with diabetes?

What is the prognosis?

Amniocentesis

* Definition of Amniocentesis
* Description of Amniocentesis
* Questions To Ask Your Doctor About Amniocentesis

Definition of Amniocentesis
Amniocentesis is a simple medical procedure used to obtain small samples of the amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus.

Description of Amniocentesis
In the first half of the pregnancy (between the 14th and 18th week) the doctor may perform an amniocentesis when:

* The age of the mother is 35 years of age or older. The risk of bearing children with chromosomal birth defects increases as a woman ages, thus if a woman will be 35 or older at the time of delivery, most physicians offer the option of prenatal testing for chromosomal disorders. Among the most common of these disorders is Down syndrome, a combination of mental and physical abnormalities caused by the presence of an extra chromosome.

* A previous child or pregnancy resulted in a birth defect. If a couple already has a child (or pregnancy) diagnosed with a chromosomal abnormality, a biochemical birth defect, or a neural tube defect, the couple may be offered prenatal testing during subsequent pregnancies.

* Family history shows an increased risk of inheriting a genetic disorder. Couples without a previously affected child may also be offered prenatal testing if their family medical histories indicate their children may be at increased risk of inheriting a genetic disorder.

* One or both prospective parents may be "carriers" of a disorder, or a disorder may "run in the family." Prenatal testing would be done only if the suspected condition can be diagnosed prenatally.

* There is suspected neural tube defects. These defects of the spine and brain, including spina bifida and anencephaly, can be diagnosed by measuring the level of alphafetoprotein (AFP) in the amniotic fluid. Amniocentesis to measure AFP is offered if there is a family history of neural tube defects, or if earlier screening tests of AFP in the mother's blood indicate that the pregnancy is at increased risk.

* The doctor wants to assess fetal lung maturity. Fetal lung assessment is important if the mother needs to deliver the baby early. By testing the amniotic fluid doctors can tell whether the baby's lung's are developed enough to breathe on their own.

* Detection of Rh disease is needed. Rh disease causes antibodies in the mother's blood to attack fetal blood cells and an amniocentesis detects the disease and enables the doctors to take appropriate measures to reduce complications.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor About Amniocentesis
Should an amniocentesis be done?

Is there a possibility the baby will have birth defects?

When should the amniocentesis be done?

How will the test be done?

What will the amniocentesis show?

What are the possible outcomes?

Cesarean Section

* Definition of Cesarean Section
* Description of Cesarean Section
* Questions To Ask Your Doctor About Cesarean Section

Definition of Cesarean Section
Cesarean childbirth consists of an operation to deliver a baby through an incision in the abdomen.

Description of Cesarean Section
Until recently the operation was usually used as a last resort because of a high rate of maternal complications and death. With the availability of antibiotics to fight infection and the development of modern surgical techniques, the once high maternal mortality rate has dropped dramatically. As a result, the cesarean childbirth rate has increased dramatically.

There are three main types of cesarean operations, each named according the location and direction of the uterine incision:

Low Transverse, a transverse (horizontal) incision in the lower uterus

Low Vertical, a vertical incision in the lower uterus

Classical, a vertical incision in the main body of the uterus

Today, the low transverse incision is used almost exclusively. It has the lowest incidence of hemorrhage during surgery as well as the least chance of rupturing in later pregnancies.

Sometimes, because of fetal size (very large or very small) or position problems (breech or transverse), a low vertical cesarean may be performed.

In the classical operation, a larger vertical incision allows a greater opening; it is used in some emergency situations as well as for fetal size or position problems. This approach involves more bleeding in surgery and a higher risk of abdominal infection. All subsequent deliveries must be by cesarean section after a classical delivery due to the higher risk of uterine rupture.

Although any uterine incision may rupture during a subsequent labor, the classical is more likely to do so, and more likely to result in death for the mother and fetus than a low transverse or low vertical incision.

There are many reasons why a woman might need to deliver by Cesarean section, although not all doctors agree on when one is really necessary. The most common reason is failure to progress (FTP) in labor, where labor has stalled because the cervix has stopped dilating or uterine contractions are weak. The second most common reason for cesarean section is fetal distress. Sometimes the baby can not tolerate the strong contractions associated with labor. When the fetal heart tracing becomes non-reassuring, a cesarean section is usually performed. Another common reason for cesarean section is previous cesarean section or surgery on the uterus. Women who delivered by a classical cesarean section in a previous pregnancy must deliver by cesarean section for all following pregnancies. However, women with a history delivering by low transverse cesarean section are given the choice of scheduling a repeat cesarean section or trying to deliver vaginally. Also some women with a history of surgery to remove fibroids may need to deliver by cesarean section.

Other less common reasons for a cesarean section are listed below:

Cephalopelvic Distortion (CPD. Another indication of cesarean delivery is cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD), a rare condition in which the baby's head is too large to fit through the mother's pelvis.

Malposition of the fetus. In breech position, the baby's buttocks or feet are positioned to come out first instead of the head. Twins might need to be delivered by cesarean if the first baby or both are breech. Malposition of the fetus does not necessarily mean a cesarean delivery.

Vaginal bleeding/placenta previa/placental abruption. Vaginal bleeding late in pregnancy often indicates placenta previa, a low-lying placenta that covers part or all of the inner opening of the cervix. If the bleeding does not stop with bedrest, the doctor probably will perform a cesarean, to prevent hemorrhage. Vaginal bleeding late in pregnancy also may indicate placental abruption, where the placenta separates from the uterine wall before delivery. In some cases of mild abruption, it may be possible to deliver vaginally. If there is heavy bleeding or fetal distress caused by abruption (abruption can lead to maternal shock, which, together with a reduced amount of functioning placenta, can deprive the fetus of adequate oxygen), a cesarean generally is necessary.

Other situations. If you have vaginal herpes and active sores in the vaginal area, your doctor might do a cesarean to try to prevent your passing on the disease to your baby. A cesarean section is usually performed in mothers with HIV before labor to prevent transmission HIV from mother to baby. Women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer who have bulky cancer lesions on the cervix are offered classical cesarean section to deliver the baby. Lastly, women pregnant with a baby with bleeding problems may be offered a cesarean section to prevent birth trauma to the infant.

Malpractice concerns, a woman’s preference, obesity and insurance coverage are also factors which may play a role in whether to perform a cesarean delivery.

Until recently, it was medically accepted that once a woman had a cesarean, she should have all of her children by cesarean because of the concern about tearing the incision. Yet studies have shown "once a cesarean, always a cesarean," no longer holds true for most women. Today, the option of attempting to give birth through the vagina is open to women who have had previous low transverse incision cesarean births, and over half of these have successful vaginal deliveries.

If vaginal delivery is a possibility for you, here are some reasons why you may wish to attempt it:

Less risk. A vaginal delivery usually has fewer complications for the mother than a cesarean birth. As there is no abdominal incision, the risks of infection, bleeding, or other problems resulting from surgery or anesthesia are much lower.

Shorter recovery. Your stay in the hospital is likely to be briefer after vaginal delivery. The average time spent in the hospital is 1 to 3 days, whereas the average stay after a cesarean birth is 3 to 5 days. Recovery at home is faster as well, since women who deliver by cesarean must limit their activity for 4 to 6 weeks to allow the abdominal incision to heal.

More involvement. Some women wish to be awake and fully involved in the birth process. There may also be more limitations on the presence of others in the room during the cesarean birth process

Questions To Ask Your Doctor About Cesarean Section
What circumstances require cesarean delivery?

Are indications of fetal distress confirmed by a fetal scalp blood test?

Is a second opinion sought before proceeding to all but emergency surgery?

Must I have intravenous infusion during labor, or can I eat and drink lightly?

What are some specifics about the facility where I will deliver. Does it require a specific management plan, such as active management of labor?

Does it offer a constant labor companion, or allow you to bring your own?